The breadboard is a solderless device for prototyping and testing circuits, it is the primary place you will be building your circuits on. Solderless means no soldering is required to make circuits, sort of like a LEGO but in electronic form. With a lot of holes in it, breadboard may seem intimidating at first, but it’s actually very simple. The horizontal and vertical rows of the breadboard, as shown in the figure, carry electricity through thin metal conductors under the plastic with holes.
The labelling shows how these are connected together.
The vertical strips are conventionally used to connect your power source to supply power to your electronic components, hence known as power bus or power rails. Note that this complete strip is connected together, which means that if we supply power in one hole of the vertical strip, than all other holes will have the same power supply.
Similarly the horizontally running strips is where different electronic components are placed, thus known as prototyping area or components rail.
To understand how we connect power source and electronic components with our breadboard, we will make a simple circuit using a battery, an LED and a resistor. First, observe the following circuit:
The same circuit is now implemented using a breadboard.
Visualize how the interconnected holes are completing our circuit and how all the electronic components are connected together using the breadboard. There are many other variations of breadboards out there other than the one mentioned above, but its easy to tell how each of them work once you know the basics.